grammatically adv : in a grammatical manner; "this child already speaks grammatically" [ant: ungrammatically]
Grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of any given spoken language, and, as such, is a field of linguistics. Traditionally, grammar included morphology and syntax; in modern linguistics these subfields are complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics. Each language has its own distinct grammar. "English grammar" (uncountable) refers to the rules of the English language itself, while "an English grammar" (countable) refers to a specific study or analysis of these rules. A fully explicit grammar exhaustively describing the grammatical constructions of a language is called a descriptive grammar. Specific types of grammars, or approaches to constructing them, are known as grammatical frameworks. The standard framework of generative grammar is the transformational grammar model developed by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s to 1980s.
A reference book that attempts a comprehensive description of the grammar of a language may be called "a grammar" or "a reference grammar".
EtymologyThe word "grammar," derives from Greek γραμματική τέχνη (grammatike techne), which means "art of letters," from γράμμα (gramma), "letter," and that from γράφειν (graphein), "to draw, to write".
Historysee History of linguistics The first systematic grammars originate in Iron Age India, with Panini (4th c. BC) and his commentators Pingala (ca. 200 BC), Katyayana, and Patanjali (2nd c. BC). In the West, grammar emerges as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd c. BC forward with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace, the oldest extant work being the Art of Grammar (), attributed to Dionysius Thrax (ca. 100 BC). Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, Aemilius Asper.
Tamil grammatical tradition also began around the 1st century BC with the Tolkāppiyam.
Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian. Treatment of vernaculars begins gradually during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but becomes influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492. During the 16th century Italian Renaissance, the Questione della lingua was the discussion on the status and ideal form of the Italian language, initiated by Dante's de vulgari eloquentia (Pietro Bembo, Prose della volgar lingua Venice 1525).
Grammars of non-European languages began to be compiled for the purposes of evangelization and Bible translation from the 16th century onward, such as Grammatica o Arte de la Lengua General de los Indios de los Reynos del Perú (1560), and a Quechua grammar by Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás. In 1643 there appeared Ivan Uzhevych's Grammatica sclavonica and, in 1762, the Short Introduction to English Grammar of Robert Lowth was also published. The Grammatisch-Kritisches Wörterbuch der hochdeutschen Mundart, a High German grammar in five volumes by Johann Christoph Adelung, appeared as early as 1774.
From the latter part of the 18th century, grammar came to be understood as a subfield of the emerging discipline of modern linguistics. The Serbian grammar by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić arrived in 1814, while the Deutsche Grammatik of the Brothers Grimm was first published in 1818. The Comparative Grammar of Franz Bopp, the starting point of modern comparative linguistics, came out in 1833.
In the USA, the Society for the Promotion of Good Grammar has designated March 4, 2008 as National Grammar Day.
Development of grammarsGrammars evolve through usage, and grammars also develop due to separations of the human population. With the advent of written representations, formal rules about language usage tend to appear also. Formal grammars are codifications of usage that are developed by repeated documentation over time, and by observation as well. As the rules become established and developed, the prescriptive concept of grammatical correctness can arise. This often creates a discrepancy between contemporary usage and that which has been accepted over time as being correct. Linguists tend to believe that prescriptive grammars do not have any justification beyond their authors' aesthetic tastes; however, prescriptions are considered in sociolinguistics as part of the explanation for why some people say "I didn't do nothing", some say "I didn't do anything", and some say one or the other depending on social context.
The formal study of grammar is an important part of education for children from a young age through advanced learning, though the rules taught in schools are not a "grammar" in the sense most linguists use the term, as they are often prescriptive rather than descriptive.
Constructed languages (also called planned languages or conlangs) are more common in the modern day. Many have been designed to aid human communication (for example, naturalistic Interlingua, schematic Esperanto, and the highly logic-compatible artificial language Lojban). Each of these languages has its own grammar.
No clear line can be drawn between syntax and morphology. Analytic languages use syntax to convey information that is encoded via inflection in synthetic languages. In other words, word order is not significant and morphology is highly significant in a purely synthetic language, whereas morphology is not significant and syntax is highly significant in an analytic language. Chinese and Afrikaans, for example, are highly analytic, and meaning is therefore very context – dependent. (Both do have some inflections, and have had more in the past; thus, they are becoming even less synthetic and more "purely" analytic over time.) Latin, which is highly synthetic, uses affixes and inflections to convey the same information that Chinese does with syntax. Because Latin words are quite (though not completely) self-contained, an intelligible Latin sentence can be made from elements that are placed in a largely arbitrary order. Latin has a complex affixation and a simple syntax, while Chinese has the opposite.
Grammar frameworksVarious "grammar frameworks" have been developed in theoretical linguistics since the mid 20th century, in particular under the influence of the idea of a "Universal grammar" in the USA. Of these, the main divisions are:
Notes and references
- American Academic Press, The (ed.). William Strunk, Jr., et al. The Classics of Style: The Fundamentals of Language Style From Our American Craftsmen. Cleveland: The American Academic Press, 2006. ISBN 0978728203.
- Rundle, Bede. Grammar in Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. ISBN 0198246129.
grammatically in Afrikaans: Grammatika
grammatically in Tosk Albanian: Grammatik
grammatically in Amharic: ስዋሰው
grammatically in Aragonese: Gramatica
grammatically in Asturian: Gramática
grammatically in Bengali: ব্যাকরণ
grammatically in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Граматыка
grammatically in Bosnian: Gramatika
grammatically in Breton: Yezhadur
grammatically in Bulgarian: Граматика
grammatically in Catalan: Gramàtica
grammatically in Chuvash: Грамматика
grammatically in Czech: Mluvnice
grammatically in Welsh: Gramadeg
grammatically in Danish: Grammatik
grammatically in German: Grammatik
grammatically in Modern Greek (1453-): Γραμματική
grammatically in Spanish: Gramática
grammatically in Esperanto: Gramatiko
grammatically in Basque: Gramatika
grammatically in Persian: دستور زبان
grammatically in French: Grammaire
grammatically in Galician: Gramática
grammatically in Classical Chinese: 語法
grammatically in Korean: 문법
grammatically in Hindi: व्याकरण
grammatically in Croatian: Gramatika
grammatically in Ido: Gramatiko
grammatically in Indonesian: Tata bahasa
grammatically in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Grammatica
grammatically in Icelandic: Málfræði
grammatically in Italian: Grammatica
grammatically in Hebrew: דקדוק
grammatically in Kara-Kalpak: Grammatika
grammatically in Kurdish: Rêziman
grammatically in Latin: Ars grammatica
grammatically in Latvian: Gramatika
grammatically in Lithuanian: Gramatika
grammatically in Lojban: gerna
grammatically in Hungarian: Nyelvtan
grammatically in Macedonian: Граматика
grammatically in Marathi: मराठी व्याकरण
grammatically in Dutch: Grammatica
grammatically in Japanese: 文法
grammatically in Norwegian: Grammatikk
grammatically in Norwegian Nynorsk: Grammatikk
grammatically in Novial: Gramatike
grammatically in Low German: Grammatik
grammatically in Polish: Gramatyka
grammatically in Portuguese: Gramática
grammatically in Romanian: Gramatică
grammatically in Quechua: Simi kamachiy
grammatically in Russian: Грамматика
grammatically in Sanskrit: व्याकरण
grammatically in Scots: Grammar
grammatically in Simple English: Grammar
grammatically in Slovenian: Slovnica
grammatically in Serbian: Граматика
grammatically in Finnish: Kielioppi
grammatically in Swedish: Grammatik
grammatically in Thai: ไวยากรณ์
grammatically in Vietnamese: Ngữ pháp
grammatically in Tok Pisin: Grama
grammatically in Turkish: Dil bilgisi
grammatically in Ukrainian: Граматика
grammatically in Walloon: Croejhete (linwince)
grammatically in Yiddish: גראמאטיק
grammatically in Chinese: 语法
grammatically in Slovak: Gramatika (jazykoveda)